Thursday, March 12, 2020

The eNotes Blog FOR SALE DraculasBirthplace

FOR SALE DraculasBirthplace Heres something you wont find in Craigslists classifieds The writing desk at which Bram Stoker created the bloodcurdling modern myth of Dracula will soon be up for auction. Looking at the ornate desk today, which seems so fitting as the gothic setting for the creation of perhaps the most chilling book in English literature, its hard to believe it was salvaged from near ruin not very long ago. Yes, this artifact, like all good curiosities, has its very own story After Stoker completed Dracula in 1897, he gifted the writing table to his good friend JSR Phillips, editor of the Yorkshire Post. According to an article in that same newspaper, the desk was later passed down at Phillips death to his son ER Phillips. Unfortunately, the younger Phillips wife so disliked the relic that she banished it from the house to rot in the garden for years. It was the Phillips son Guy, grandson of JSR, who saved the desk from complete ruin by taking it with him to London. But though he knew the history of the Dracula desk, Guy then left it behind in that London apartment when he moved away. Its next owners, the Brodericks, had no knowledge of its famous origins until they received a note from Guy Phillips later, explaining its history and hinting at its dark powers. I loathed the Dracula desk. But it is a fact that after leaving it behind, I and my family suffered misfortune after misfortune. I had two coronaries and my wife died suddenly of a stroke. Even after receiving the note, the Brodericks almost relegated the desk to destruction, casting it off to their neighbors the Yulls. At this point, the desk was in such bad shape that Mrs. Yull very nearly cast it off to a bonfire. It was only saved by her husband, who insisted it be put in his study and used as his computer desk. Interestingly, it was at the Dracula desk that Yull wrote his first book, a novel about Nazi fascination with the occult. Eventually, the antique made its way into caring hands. As of today the desk has been restored to more than its original glory by master furniture artist Mark Brazier-Jones, whose restorations can be found at none other than The Louvre and The Victoria Albert Museum. He explains his reimagining of the Dracula desk below. Even as a new desk, in its day, this was a modest item of furniture, a place for a man to work, and yet possessing a noble honesty.  I wanted to keep the desk complete and intact, to save all its scars and broken varnish, this history alive with its gnarled texturesI decided to attach, via callipers and clasps the necessaries to regain functionality.   To this I have also embroidered imagery appropriate to the great mans inspirations and imaginings.   I visualize Stoker sat pen to paper contemplating a moonlit rose garden, breathless milk white cleavage and blood soaked lace.   All the fixtures and fittings I have created are in bronze and burnished steel. He has also leather lined two secret compartments I have devised (the position of which will only be revealed to the final owner of the desk) The face panel of each drawer is acid etched through to copper and nickel layers.   The effect is to subtly represent a misty tableau of Whitby Abbey by moonlight, surrounded by gravestones and bats.   Over these drawer fronts are five bronze handles, each one different.   On the lower left, a bat, to the lower right, a savage hound (in Stokers book Dracula arrived in Whitby as a giant dog).   The three upper drawers consist of scrolling rose thorns and buds. The interiors are lined in deep buttoned blood red velvet.   The baroque rose motif is used again where they seem to crawl up and across the table top frame giving the feeling time has stopped like an overgrown grave. So, gone is the humble and battered desk of Stokers time, replaced by an ornate piece of art that certainly lives up to the gothic nature of its history. Hopefully some of the desks mysterious powers remain intact beneath all those coats of varnish, least of which is its uncanny ability to escape bonfires and garbage heaps. The Dracula desk can be yours, courtesy of the Profiles in History Hollywood Auction for a mere $60,000 to $80,000. Look for it on sale between December 15th-16th. Happy Halloween eNoters!

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

'Leases' and its impact on the financial position and performance of Essay

'Leases' and its impact on the financial position and performance of companies - Essay Example Exposure Draft ED/2013/6 'Leases' and its impact on the financial position and performance of companies Financial accounting Standards Board (FASB) and International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) has revised the Exposure Draft that outlined some proposed changes in the accounting rules for leases. The reason behind such a proposal is just to improve the comparability and quality of financial reporting, by increasing the transparency related to leverage. This signifies the use of assets in the organization in its day to day operations and the exposure to risk by entering into a lease contact. The Exposure Draft has proposed a dual approach through which identification, measurement and presentation of the cash flows and the expenses related to lease can be made. Apart from this, the board has proposed some disclosure that would facilitate the investors and other users of the financial information to understand the uncertainty of cash flow, amount and timing arising from leasing (IFRS Foundation, 2013a). This study focuses on the impact of new revised accounting standards that are fra med for leases, on the financial performance and position of the organization. Delta Airlines is a major airline, which is operating in America. It is headquartered at Atlanta, Georgia. It has an extensive network serving both domestic and international location in almost every continent except Antarctica. The organization along with its subsidiaries is operating with more than 5000 flights everyday and has approximate employee strength of about 80,000. Many of its aircrafts along with some ground facilities are taken on lease (Delta Air Lines, 2013; Delta Air Lines, Inc. 2013a). Thus, following section of the reports deals with how the revised accounting standard is going to affect the company. Lease Contacts by Delta Airlines Operating lease may act as an attractive option for the airlines industry as it increases the flexibility of the fleet, reduces the residual risk related to the aircraft for the aircraft industry and requires lower amount of capital commitment for the airline company. During the year 2012, Delta Air lines have entered into contact with T he Boeing Company and Southwest Airlines, to lease eighty eight B-717-200 aircraft. In the later part of 2012, these aircrafts were delivered. In the first fleet, 16 aircrafts were delivered and thirty six aircrafts will be delivered in 2014 and 2015 respectively. The B-717-200 aircraft that has been leased by the company will have advanced features like new and fully upgraded interiors, total seats of 110 that comprises of 15 Economy Comfort seat and 12 First Class seat, along with in-flight Wi-Fi (Delta Air Lines, Inc. 2013b). Thus, it can be expected to generate more income. Apart from this, most of the ground facilities of Delta are also on lease. Most of the lands and building that are occupied by the organization are on lease. The largest base for aircraft maintenance, principal offices, training facilities, kitchens, cargo and

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Why I Want to Teach Speech or Presentation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Why I Want to Teach - Speech or Presentation Example The eventualities of the experiences have made some of us to either abhor or cherish the learning part of our lives. Regardless of the experience one may have had, this piece of writing is a speech outlining the reasons why I want to be a teacher. "Teaching should be such that what is offered is perceived as a valuable gift and not as a hard duty." Albert Einstein My choice to settle on teaching as a profession was not a matter of spontaneous decision. Instead, it was a factor of a couple of years of reflection regarding the career I would like to pursue in life. I have settled on a career in education because I firmly believe that it stands out as one of the integral duties carried out in our society. I am convicted that teachers, both as an individual and collectively, have the ability to transform the world and shape it to the desirable destiny. In this profession of teaching, I remain hopeful that I will not only find an occupation and a source of living, but also I will derive p ersonal fulfillment and rejuvenation from it. I want to be part and parcel of the great pool of resourceful teachers who will one day be counted as those adhered to the true calling of teaching profession. In the words of Albert Einstein, I desire to teach such that what I offer to the students is perceived as a valuable gift and not as a hard duty. ... Furthermore, these teachers had a great mastery of communication skills and were well versed with the subject matter content. This is the exact type of teachers I desire to emulate. Nonetheless, being an open minded individual, I believe that my teaching technique would equally be anchored on a wide range of factors including my values and experiences. I want to ensure that my students learn in an environment that is secure and comfortable so that their level of steel esteem is enhanced. My experience as a student has served as an eye opener that great minds end up being unexploited to the optimum simply because the learning environment was not insecure or not conducive. Unwavering self-esteem would certainly give the student the confidence to strive and reach out for the goals they set for themselves. As a teacher, I will play an integral role in the provision of this environment to all students. I am also excited that I will have the privilege of shaping the lives of future parents and great members of the society. Often times, I find myself in a reverie imagining the pride that the teachers who taught President Obama felt when he was eventually inaugurated as the president of United States of America. I think of that and I cannot wait to start teaching. Who knows that an Obama or Hillary Clinton might be one of my students?! Many people find it hard to comprehend my unyielding passion to teaching profession. As others look at me in utter amazement, some people have chosen to level all sorts of criticisms at my â€Å"misdirected† ambition. They assert that teachers are the most lot of professionals no wonders they are ever complaining of exploitation. I do not blame them for this or neither do I hit

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Encountering Conflict Essay Example for Free

Encountering Conflict Essay Encountering Conflict Conflict can both crush people and inspire people to greater heights. Conflict presents itself in various forms; it can occur in different places, can be intentional or unexpected and affect people in diverse ways. To survive people then need to develop coping mechanisms to overcome or at least begin their Journey of recovery. If they cannot do this, then they will not be able to move on. Conflict is a subject that everyone in the world faces on a day to day basis, but at different levels and emotions. Conflict can be exceptionally heart wrenching, by tearing people and amilies apart. But these wounds motivate many inspiring people who then make a difference. Conflict is a part of life; it cannot be avoided or put on hold. People from all around the world deal with conflict, in various ways and it affects people to a different extent. Throughout life, people may experience many conflicting situations, some are built by little ongoing problems, some explode and are left to dissolve, others are blown apart the pieces scattered, never to be put back together again. Conflict has been exposed and expressed in many films, novels and songs over the ears. The documentary Omagh by Pete Travis is an example of the devastation that conflict can wreck on lives. The film explains how conflict can affect innocent lives. For hundreds of years there has been tension between the Catholic Irish and Protestant English. This began as Ireland divided as a country due to religion but the tension increased with British interference in Northern Ireland. The documentary focuses on one specific event within the conflict which was the bombing in the Omagh high street. This caused 29 deaths and 220 injuries, of innocent people. The result left amilies crushed, broken hearted and dealing with their own conflict for a long time. The root of this devastation was religion; the Catholic Irish and Protestant English have fought for many years. Ironically the purpose of religion is to create peace, where as in Omagh it was the primary cause and branch of all the conflict. A very similar ongoing religious conflict is the fight for homeland between the Jewish and Zions (Israel and Palestinians conflict). The Jewish were sent from Israeli homelands many hundreds of years ago, but since have suffered persecution in Europe and now ish to return to their religious homeland of Israel. This however has been met with aggression by Palestinians and the Arab nations who now inhabit the area. Like the tension in Northern Ireland, peace is a long and painful patch to find. Conflict that has dwelled upon innocent lives has an impact on others who believe it should be brought to Justice. 1. 2 the Irish band wrote a song to express their feelings of their anger in response to the devastation in Omagh. One verse that stands out is: And the battles Just begun Theres many lost, but tell me who has won The trench is dug within our hearts And mothers, children, brothers, sisters torn apart. This particular verse links with the concept that conflict can devastate innocent people and their families, which are then being torn apart by the religion and also politicians in Omagh they did nothing. Thus people, like 132, stand up so hopefully the politicians can see that the conflict that has happened is still wounding many people lives, and that only they can bring it to Justice. So, conflict is a piece of everyones lives, even though you may shun conflict, it can come up unexpectedly. Omagh is an example of how conflict can be unexpected and totally crush lives. Conflict can also inspire people to create better lives for themselves and those around them. Kate Miller-Heidke wrote the song Caught in Crowd about a real story of lingering childhood regret. She wanted to raise awareness to people across the world, especially adolescents, of how bullying and peer pressure are causes of conflict. The song is about a relationship growing between a teenage girl and an outcast boy who is often bullied. It discusses how both had similarities, for example they both dealt ith conflict at home. Towards the end it talks about the boy getting thrown to the ground and him shouting out to her to help him. But she turned her back, and Just walked away. Kate Miller-Heidke encountered conflict and regrets the decision she made. Now she is motivated to make sure people of the younger generation do not make the same decision she made. Like Kate Miller- Heidke, Michael Gallagher, the father of Aidan Gallagher who was killed in the Omagh bombing wanted create a more satisfying life for himself, but also wanted to raise awareness that murders ere not being brought to Justice. He set up an Omagh Support and Self Help Group, which since 1998 have not stopped their fght. They have protested outside IRA meetings, written to the English Prime Minister and have talked to numerous newspapers but nothing has happened in relation towards the terrorist. In 2002, Michael Gallagher stated what happened in Omagh is still capable of happening in other towns. Because of him he has taught the world many lessons; the most important is never to give up on a Just cause Traumatic conflict can motivate people o immense heights, which can make an inspiring difference to our world today. Like Michael Gallagher, Glen McGrath lost a loved one and has not stopped fighting for what he believes in since his personal conflict. His wife, Jane was diagnosed with breast cancer. Jane McGrath had a passionate belief that every woman diagnosed with breast cancer in Australia should be able to benefit from the support of a specialist breast care nurse. Therefore, together they started up the McGrath Foundation in 2002. An additional aim of the project was to increase the awareness f breast cancer in younger women. Jane passed away at the age of 41 . Glen McGrath is more determined and devoted to the McGrath foundation by the inspiration of his loving wife. This proves that conflict can really touch people which motivates them to make a change, encouraging them to greater heights. These people have so much strength, their experiences power them on. Encountering painful conflict can bring out the best in people such as the old saying What doesnt kill us makes us stronger suggests people acknowledge they ave made a difference in the world and become satisfied. This is the beginning to the start of their Journey to recovery or acceptance. In the movie Omagh, Michael Gallagher, his wife and two daughters have not stopped fghting for the loss of their son, who was killed in the bombing. This tragedy caused conflict between the family, but they have learnt that they need to stick together to succeed their mission of family close, them standing up for what they believe in has helped them start their journey of recovery with each other. Another inspiration for making something out of terrible situation is in the novel Triage by Scott Anderson, the character Joaquin Morales managed to escape his village that was invaded. Joaquin lost his family dealing with the conflict of losing his family and survivors guilt. Joaquin become a psychologist for war criminals, hoping to change them and make them realise what monstrosities they caused. This would save many lives and hopefully bring peace to Spain. This experience helped Joaquin to begin his Journey of acceptance of what had happen to him. Joaquin quoted Im still here. Im still smiling meaning that he has learnt to live with himself after encountering conflict, which motivated him in saving many lives. Conflict is a subject that everyone in the world deals with everyday, from light issues to vigorous intensities. Conflict is incredibly powerful, it can tear people apart but it also brings the best out of many inspirational humans. Conflict can motivate people to extreme lengths which can make a huge difference in the world. These differences also help the individual to deal and maybe even overcome their own conflict.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Comparing Odyssey :: essays research papers

The Odyssey vs. American History X   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Odyssey and American History X don’t share similarities in the plot, theme or time period, but they have an ingredient common in many stories. Odysseus and Derek are challenged with deadly obstacles and they overcome these difficulties with the help of a mentor. A guide saves both characters and assists them in their return home. Odysseus and Derek need the support and help of a trusted friend who will guide them through their dramatic adventure.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Bob Sweeny, a trusted and loyal friend to Derek helped him develop into a well-rounded person. After Derek Vinyard’s father died, he fell into a self-destructive pattern ultimately leading to racism. After spending three years in jail, Derek began to realize he needed to liberate himself and his family from this hate-infested lifestyle. Derek turned to Mr. Sweeny and begged for his forgiveness and his help. While in prison, Mr. Sweeny told Derek, â€Å"your anger is consuming you, your anger is shutting down the brain god gave you† (American History X). Mr. Sweeny guided Derek into the right direction. He understood that in order for Derek to be truly liberated he needed to learn on his own, much like Athena. He guided Derek, but never persuaded him to change. Surviving jail was nearly impossible, but with the help of Mr. Sweeny, Derek overcame imprisonment and returned home.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Athena is much like Mr. Sweeny, helping Odysseus return home. She disguised Odysseus into a beggar, consulted with other Gods to allow him to return home, and she helped devise a plan to defend his home. Although Athena assisted Odysseus greatly, she never chose a path he should take, much like Mr. Sweeny. Both Derek and Odysseus show their gratitude toward their mentor, however Odysseus boldly states his affection in the following passage, â€Å" Mentor, stand by me and remember your old comrade who always did the right thing by you. We are yearsmates!† (Chapter 22, Page 247). Here, Odysseus thanks Athena for her assistance and her loyalty. This was also done by Derek but in an indirect manner. The most prevalent comparison between these two stories is the relationship between tests and ordeals. Derek must overcome racism in order to survive prison, and Odysseus needs to identify that his excessive pride delayed his return home several years. The gangs in prison threatened Derek every day. They pose a potential negative impact on his family if he continued to demonstrate his hatred.

Monday, January 13, 2020

The Fluidity of War

War is an organized and often prolonged conflict that is carried out by states or non-state actors. It is generally characterised by extreme violence, social disruption, and economic destruction. War should be understood as an actual, intentional and widespread armed conflict between political communities, and therefore is defined as a form of political violence or intervention. The set of techniques used by a group to carry out war is known as warfare. An absence of war is usually called peace. In 2003, Nobel Laureate Richard E.Smalley identified war as the sixth biggest problem facing humanity for the next fifty years. In the 1832 treatise On War, Prussian military general and theoretician Carl von Clausewitz defined war as follows: â€Å"War is thus an act of force to compel our enemy to do our will. † While some scholars see warfare as an inescapable and integral aspect of human nature, others argue that it is only inevitable under certain socio-cultural or ecological circ umstances. Some scholars argue that the practice of war is not linked to any single type of political organization or society.Rather, as discussed by John Keegan in his History of Warfare, war is a universal phenomenon whose form and scope is defined by the society that wages it. Another argument suggests that since there are human societies in which warfare does not exist, humans may not be naturally disposed for warfare, which emerges under particular circumstances. The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is the Second World War, with 60–85 million deaths.Proportionally speaking, the most destructive war in modern history has been claimed to be the War of the Triple Alliance, which took the lives of over 60% of Paraguay's population. Etymology The English word war derives from the late Old English words wyrre and werre; the Old North French werre; the Frankish werra; and the Proto-Germanic werso. The denotation of war deriv es from the Old Saxon werran, Old High German werran, and the German verwirren: â€Å"to confuse†, â€Å"to perplex†, and â€Å"to bring into confusion†.Another posited derivation is from the Ancient Greek barbaros, the Old Persian varhara, and the Sanskrit varvar and barbara. In German, the equivalent is Krieg; the equivalent Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian words for â€Å"war† is guerra, derived from the Germanic werra . Etymologic legend has it that the Romanic peoples adopted a foreign, Germanic word for â€Å"war†, to avoid using the Latin bellum, because, when sounded, it tended to merge with the sound of the word bello .The scholarly study of war is sometimes called polemology, from the Greek polemos, meaning â€Å"war†, and -logy, meaning â€Å"the study of†. Types of war War, to become known as one, must entail some degree of confrontation using weapons and other military technology and equipment by armed forces employing mi litary tactics and operational art within the broad military strategy subject to military logistics. War Studies by military theorists throughout military history have sought to identify the philosophy of war, and to reduce it to a military science.Modern military science considers several factors before a national defence policy is created to allow a war to commence: the environment in the area of combat operations, the posture national forces will adopt on the commencement of a war, and the type of warfare troops will be engaged in. Conventional warfare is an attempt to reduce an opponent's military capability through open battle. It is a declared war between existing states in which nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons are not used or only see limited deployment in support of conventional military goals and maneuvers.The opposite of conventional warfare, unconventional warfare, is an attempt to achieve military victory through acquiescence, capitulation, or clandestine suppor t for one side of an existing conflict. Nuclear warfare is warfare in which nuclear weapons are the primary, or a major, method of coercing the capitulation of the other side, as opposed to a supporting tactical or strategic role in a conventional conflict. Civil war is a war where the forces in conflict belong to the same nation or political entity and are vying for control of or independence from that nation or political entity.Asymmetric warfare is a conflict between two populations of drastically different levels of military capability or size. Asymmetric conflicts often result in guerrilla tactics being used to overcome the sometimes vast gaps in technology and force size. Intentional air pollution in combat is one of a collection of techniques collectively called chemical warfare. Poison gas as a chemical weapon was principally used during World War I, and resulted in an estimated 91,198 deaths and 1,205,655 injuries. Various treaties have sought to ban its further use. Non-le thal chemical weapons, such as tear gas and pepper  spray, are widely used, sometimes with deadly effect.Behaviour and conduct in war The behaviour of troops in warfare varies considerably, both individually and as units or armies. In some circumstances, troops may engage in genocide, war rape and ethnic cleansing. Commonly, however, the conduct of troops may be limited to posturing and sham attacks, leading to highly rule-bound and often largely symbolic combat in which casualties are much reduced from that which would be expected if soldiers were genuinely violent towards the enemy. Situations of deliberate dampening of hostilities occurred in World War I by some accounts, e.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Problem Scenarios on Contract Law - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2209 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Case study Did you like this example? Law of contracts Table of Contents Facts of the case Issues of the case:- Relevant Laws:- Application of law:- Suggestions:- References Facts of the case Alice is the owner of the block of land in the region of the central coast and recently got her architectà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s plan for developing that site for the child care facility approved by the local council. Alice sends a letter to four builders i.e Bazza, Cassy, Davo and Edna to tender for the job for the construction of a new building of child care facility. She knew the four builders as she had commercially developed the buildings in the past, so asked them to provide the tender. She writes a letter to all the four builders individually, with the attachment of a site and the list of the materials. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Problem Scenarios on Contract Law" essay for you Create order The tender must be to build the structure according to the architects plan. You must agree to use the material as dictated in the architect plan. You must prepare to commence work on 1Dec.2015 and the work must be completed by 1 june2017. Your tender must be received by close of business, 25 may 2015 and remain open for acceptance until 1 Aug. 2015. Your tender is subject to contract. My obligations are subject to finance. The contract is subject to the issuing of a child care facility from the relevant government department. We will use reasonable endeavors to finalize any further terms that may be required. All tender will be confidential. I will undertake and bind myself to accept the best tender that complies with these terms. Bazza quoted $300,000 for the completion of a job by 1 June, 2017. Cassy quoted $400,000 or $50,000 less than the lowest quoted price for the work which is to be finished by 1 June, 2017. Davo quoted $500,000 for the completion of work by 1 June, 2016 and further stated that I do not use any sub contractors all the trade people on the site will employed which personally choosen by me for their skills. Edna quoted $280,000 for the completion of the job by 1 June,2017 and posted her tender in the evening of 25 May,2015 which arrives at Aliceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s premises the very next day. Alice chooses Cassyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s quotation by comparing the prices of all the three builders and nothing else she compared. Bazza had obtained quotes from various trades people. For the purpose of brokering, he got quotes from 5 bricklayers and told them he will quote the average of all 5 and one bricklayer agreed to do the job for a price below the cost of another four. In such circumstances, he offered lowest quotes. The bricklayer told him now that he cannot do the job at the original quoted price. Bazza thought if he contracted with Alice at his quoted price In the tender, he would not profit. Issues of the case:- Whether Bazza can take action against the bricklayer for not quoting the price properly or rather not agreeing to do the job at the original quoted price? Whether Bazza has any option to change the original quoted price? Whether Alice entered into a contract with anyone? If Alice has contracted with anyone, then with whom? Relevant Laws:- According to the Australian Law a quotation for the tender is just invitation to enter into a contract between the parties, i.e. one party who demands for the quotation and the other party who submits the quotation. According to the conditions of the contract under Australian law there must be an offer and acceptance. When both the parties agreed to do with the contract, the doctrine of promissory estoppels applies.[1] The estoppels is that when one party promises other party to act upon any part then the party who made the promise will not be allowed to go behind the promise.[2] According to the law in Australia the person cannot be allowed to change the original quoted price. The person giving quotation must use his skills and experiences at the time of quoting prices in the tender because after that the person is not allowed to change the original quoted price . According to the Australian law private sector and government agencies will invite tenders through the process s pecified by the Australian government known as tender process . It is important for the individuals and entities who invite tenders to understand the law which regulates the tender process. The services under the Australian law are exchanged by the medium of a contract. The important principle law, contract law is a contract is made where a reasonable offer made by one party and the same offer is accepted by the other party who are capable to contract.[3] Another important principle is that there must be a common intention of both the parties to enter into a contract. Before entering into a contract, a government enterprise or the private sector requires to follow the law regulates the tender process. The First step for the tender process is to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“issue a request for tenderà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . Request for tender is nothing but just a notice inviting contractors who satisfies the conditions to meet the requirements of the tender and other requested documents. (1) Persons int erested in providing those services, submits a tender which are also known as bid , offer, quotaion etc. (2) The objective of tendering process is to locate a preferred supplier which results into a contractual relationship for the purpose of the supply of services. It is important to mention here that the tendering process continues to the contractual relationship. A request for tender, for the purpose of formation of contract is not an offer, it is just an invitation to enter into a contract or we can say that it is just a request to negotiate or an offer with a possibility of contract.[4] Application of law:- Whether Bazza can take action against bricklayer for not quoting the price properly or rather not agreed to do the job at the original prices- That according to the Australian law, notice inviting tenders has been just an invitation to enter into a contract but not a mere contract but once the offer accepted both the parties bound by the contract. According to the present situation Bazza quoted tenders from the 5 bricklayers and told them that he would use a combination of their quotes to then quote a price for the job with Alice. As Bazza told the bricklayers that he would use their quotations to quote the price for the job with Alice and he received the quotations from the bricklayers, the relationship of offer and acceptance came into existence. As the bricklayers promise to Bazza to work on the quoted prices and on rely upon that quotations Bazza submits a tender to do a job with Alice. But when the tender submits one of the bricklayer refuses to doing work for the quoted price which results to loss in the work done for Alice if he has to enter into a contract with her. So, according to the Australian law, that bricklayer is liable under the doctrine of promissory estoppels. The definition of promissory estoppels defined as the when one party promises the other party to act upon any part and that party after relying upon that promises, acts further that the person who made the promise is liable under the doctrine of promissory estoppels. Bazza can take actions according to the promissory estoppels under Australian law. Whether Bazza has any option to change the original quoted price- That according to the Australian law, Bazza has no option to change the original quoted price as it is the well settled law that the person giving quotations must use their skills and experiences at the time of giving the prices. Whether Alice has entered into a contract with anyone- As according to the Australian law the tendering process precedes into the contractual relationship. The request for tender is we say that the step for the formation of a contract. The request for tender is an invitation to treat or an offer with a contract in mind. Means we can say that once the offer is accepted by the party, then it comes under the Cateogary of contract if it meets the requirements of the contract. In the present situation Alice invites the tenders from the four builders i.e. Bazza, Cassy, Davo and Edna and wrote them letters inviting tenders with some conditions.[5] All the four builders submit his tenders with the conditions requiring in the letter. According to the Australian law once the party offers the other party to enter into a contract and the other party accepts it, then the contract came into existence. Same is the position with the persons inviting tenders and person submit tenders. The person invi ting tenders is the party who offers. As according to the law invitation to tenders is not a contract, but a mere step towards the contract. In the procedure of invitation of tenders the person whose quotation is accepted is the person eligible to enter into a contract with the party inviting tenders. So in the present case Alice had entered into a contract with the person whose tender is accepted. If Alice has contracted with anyone- That according to the present situation Alice, the lady who invites tenders has contracted with the person whose tender is accepted as the tender which complies with all the requirements. In the give case, Alice accepted the tender of Cassy. So we can say that there is existence of contract Alice and Cassy. The Australian law well describes that the request for tenders is the process precedes the contractual relationship. The request for tender is only for the purpose of formation of contract. We agree that mere invitation is not an offer to contract, but when one party invites a tender and the other party in compliance with the requirements of the tender submits it and the party who invites tenders accepts any one of them then the relationship of offeror and acceptor came into existence. So in the present situation we can say that Alice has contracted with Cassy whose tender she accepted. The reason for the accepting the tender of the Cassy is t hat he quoted the lowest amount. It is not settled law under Australian law that the person only accepts the lowest bid, but in this situation she accepts the bid by seeing the lowest quotation because she had as plans for the development of the child care facility and not any profitable institute. If see the bids of all the four bidders then Edna had the lowest bidder, but she fails to submit the tender on time, so for that reason her bid was refused and after that the lowest bidder was Bazza. But also in the case of Bazza he refused to do the work as one of his bricklayer refused to do work because by mistake he quoted lowest amount which is not profitable to them. So after that Cassy is the only bidder who bid at the lowest amount with the amount of $400,000. So in the end we can say that Alice had contracted with Cassy whose bid she accepted.[6] Suggestions:- By considering all the facts and circumstances of the case, it is suggested that though there is no written contract between the bricklayer and Bazza. It is the settled law in Australia that the contract can be written or oral. Once the person promises to do act for other party then under the law he is not allowed to go behind the promise. Bazza can claim damages from the bricklayer even though his tender is not accepted. It is further suggested that if Alice had entered into a contract with anyone, she had to inform to others bidders as the ethics of tenders. She haad to inform to all the bidders i.e. the winning bidders and the rest of the bidders about the reason of acceptenace of bid to the winning bidder and the reason for not accepting the bids of rest of the bidders. References Ashley, Clarence D., Conditions In Contract (1905) 14The Yale Law Journal C., J. W., Contracts: Offer And Acceptance: Acceptance Conditioned By Letter Following Telegram: Acceptance By Unauthorized Means (1929) 18California Law Review Contract. Offer. Invitation To Treat (1925) 25Columbia Law Review Contract. Offer. Invitation To Treat (1925) 25Columbia Law Review Dowrick, F. E., InviteesNotice Of Unusual Dangers (1955) 18The Modern Law Review Estoppel. Estoppel In Pais. Future Conduct As Basis Of Estoppel (1909) 22Harvard Law Review Inviting Bids To Become A Preferred Supplier Does Not Violate Patents In Europe (2012) 31Biotechnology Law Report Rights And Liabilities Under Option Contracts (1905) 18Harvard Law Review TENDERING (1949) 25Australian Veterinary Journal WILLETT, CHRIS, THE FUNCTIONS OF TRANSPARENCY IN REGULATING CONTRACT TERMS: UK AND AUSTRALIAN APPROACHES (2011) 60International and Comparative Law Quarterly [1] Clarence D. Ashley, Conditions In Contract (1905) 14The Yale Law Journal. [2] Estoppel. Estoppel In Pais. Future Conduct As Basis Of Estoppel (1909) 22Harvard Law Review. [3] J. W. C., Contracts: Offer And Acceptance: Acceptance Conditioned By Letter Following Telegram: Acceptance By Unauthorized Means (1929) 18California Law Review. [4] Contract. Offer. Invitation To Treat (1925) 25Columbia Law Review. [5] Inviting Bids To Become A Preferred Supplier Does Not Violate Patents In Europe (2012) 31Biotechnology Law Report. [6] CHRIS WILLETT, THE FUNCTIONS OF TRANSPARENCY IN REGULATING CONTRACT TERMS: UK AND AUSTRALIAN APPROACHES (2011) 60International and Comparative Law Quarterly.